K11 Paiol Azul, Oporto


The most famous Tape-Echo Unit in Britain, and possibly in the World, the Copicat also happens to be the first repeat-echo machine manufactured as one compact unit. It was designed by Charlie Watkins in 1958, apparently after he heard a similar sound effect generated by two linked studio quality tape recorders for the Italian singer Marino Marini. Following its introduction, the tape-echo sound revolutionised pop music during the late 1950's and early 1960's, being behind the guitar sound of the top British bands including The Shadows. It also served a secondary purpose after being adopted for providing echo on vocals - the two volume controls acted as a rudimentary microphone mixer. These little machines sold by the thousand!!

Echo Chamber

A room or other enclosed space that amplifies and reflects sound, generally used for broadcasting or recording echos or hollow sound effects.
An environment in which the same opinions are repeatedly voiced and promoted, so that people are not exposed to opposing views.

Esthetic Echo

“Taste gives a sensuous feeling, not an esthetic emotion,” Duchamp said, “Taste presupposed a domineering onlooker who dictates what he likes and dislikes, and translates it into beautiful and ugly, whereas “the ‘victim’ of an esthetic echo is comparable to that of a man in love or a believer…when touched by esthetic revelation, the same man in an almost ecstatic mood, becomes receptive and humble.”
Tomkins, Calvin. Duchamp: A Biography. New York: MoMA, 2014.